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Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) are a class of chemical compounds frequently used in cosmetics and dermatology. AHA’s are organic acids consisting of a carboxylic group substituted by a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. AHA’s can occur naturally as the acid component of many botanicals, such as fruits, but can also be produced synthetically. Common examples are lactic acid, citric acid or glycolic acid.

Names and sources of commonly used AHAs: 

• Lactic acid: Dairy products 

• Citric acid: Citruses 

• Mandelic acid: Bitter almond 

• Glycolic acid: Cane sugar 

• Tartaric acid: Fermented grapes 

• Ascorbic acid: Fruits 

• Malic acid: Apple

The indications for AHA-containing products range from moisturizing the skin to reducing wrinkles, and most importantly - deep chemical peeling of the skin.

AHA’s in the treatment and prevention of acne: Acne occurs when the pores are clogged by dead skin cells, oil (sebum), or bacteria. Exfoliation with AHA’s helps loosen and clear congestion. Continued use can also prevent future blockages from forming. AHA’s also help reduce the size of enlarged pores, which are common in acne-prone skin. The skin cell turnover effect from exfoliating glycolic and lactic acids reduces acne scars. Anti-aging effect of AHA’s: Studies have shown that after the use of Alpha Hydroxy Acid, a decrease in coarse texture and wrinkles, as well as an increase in epidermal thickening and dermal collagen thickness have been observed. Skin discoloration: It has been revealed that AHA’s support the formation of smoother skin and also reduce skin color unevenness.


 • Improving the cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin with glycolic acid. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 36: 1011–3. 

• Fruit acid facial scrubs. Dermatological and esthetic correction with alpha‐hydroxy acids (AHA). Hautarzt 1999; 50: 448–60. 

• Alpha hydroxy acids in skin care. Clin Plast Surg 1996; 23: 49–56. • Comparison of alpha‐ and beta‐hydroxy acid chemical peels in the treatment of mild to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris. Dermatol Surg 2008; 34: 45–50; discussion 1.

 • Efficacy of an alpha‐hydroxy acid (AHA)‐based cream, even in mo‐notherapy, in patients with mild‐moderate acne. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2010; 145: 319–22. 

• Clinical improvement of photoaged skin with 50% glycolic acid. A double‐blind vehicle‐controlled study. Dermatol Surg 1996; 22: 455–60. 

• Treatment of photoaging – A personal comment and open study of the use of glycolic acid. J Dermatolog Treat 1993; 4: 215–8. 

• Effects of alpha‐hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: a pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructu‐ral study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 187–95.

Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) and beta hydroxy acid (BHA) are the two main classes of hydroxy acids. While both Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) and Beta hydroxy acids (BHA) act as exfoliants, BHA’s have also been found to be effective in reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and improving overall skin texture. It is also used in the treatment of various skin conditions such as acne scars, scarring, pigmentation, skin dryness and wrinkles. Beta Hydroxy Acids (BHA’s) such as salicylic acid are very similar to AHA’s except for the difference in their solubility.Another remarkable feature is that BHA’s are lipid soluble, unlike the water solubility of AHA’s. Thanks to these properties, it is easier for them to penetrate the skin through the oil follicles, and they are more suitable for patients with oily skin and open comedones. In addition to the proven anti-inflammatory effect of BHA’s (eg salicylic acid), their skin irritant effect has also been proven to be less than that of AHA’s.

BHA components can be listed as follows:

• Salicylic acid

• Beta hydroxybutanoic acid

• Tropic acid

• Trettocanic acid


 • U.S. Food and Drug Administrations, Beta Hydroxy Acids, 11.15.2017 

• Marks R, Leyden JJ. Dermatologic Therapy in Current Practice. Martin Dunitz; 2002. 

• Anti-wrinkle products Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology. New York: Marcel Decker; 2001. p. 543-9. 

• Green B. After 30 years ... the future of hydroxyacids. 2005;4(1):44-5. 

• Therapy for acne vulgaris. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(16):1156-62.

Arbutin is one of the most widely recommended skin lightening and pigment removal agents worldwide. Due to its structure, arbutin has activities that prevent the formation of melanin, which can be useful in the treatment of hyperpigmentation, and this causes it to be a recommended ingredient in skin tone unevenness treatments. Arbutin is derived from the bearberry plant in high proportion, but it is also found in the leaves of pear, cranberry and blueberry trees and in low amounts in wheat and inhibits melanin production. Why is arbutin important? Basically, the brown or dark spots that form on the skin are made up of pigments called melanin, which are produced by melanocyte cells that contain tyrosinase enzymes. Melanin causes discoloration of the skin, and in fact, melanin is the skin's defense tool against the sun and other factors, and during this defense, it creates permanent or temporary spots on the skin. These pigments can be activated whenever they come into contact with UV rays, so exposure to the sun is an important reason for the formation of spots or the appearance of freckles. We can say that acne, hormones, misused cosmetics or drugs are as effective as the sun in the formation of skin spots.

When arbutin is applied topically, it inhibits the tyrosinase enzyme and prevents melanin formation. Thanks to this feature, it is used as a skin lightening and anti-dark spot.

Important features of arbutin;

• By inhibiting the tyrosinase enzyme, it reduces the sun-induced darkening of the spots.

• Unlike many anti-blemish actives, it is less likely to irritate the skin.

• It can be easily included in the skin care routine because it is compatible with other active ingredients.

• It is also very effective in acne spots.


•The significance of arbutin and its derivatives in therapy and cosmetics, Phytochemistry Letters, Volume 13, September 2015, Pages 35-40 

•Cosmeceuticals for Hyperpigmentation: What is Available?, 2013 Jan-Mar; 6(1): 4–11. 

•Natural Resources Containing Arbutin. Determination of Arbutin in the Leaves of Bergenia crassifolia, 129–132. Archived from the original on 2011-08-23. 

•Skin Lightening Preparations and the Hydroquinone Controversy, Sep-Oct 2007;20(5):308-13.

Argireline is made up of chains of amino acids known as peptides. It is one of the most effective peptides used in reducing wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. Also known as acetyl hexapeptide-8. Muscle movements that provide expression formation are repeated many times during the day. Even while we sleep, muscle tensions occur in our face. Peptides are especially effective in reducing fine lines and deep wrinkles that occur due to mimic movements. They help the skin to gain a smooth and lively appearance. As an alternative to topical injections, acetyl hexapeptide-8 exerts a botox-like effect by relaxing the muscles responsible for the formation of expression lines and slowing down muscle movements. Its cosmetic benefits are the same as Botulinum toxin, but safer and smoother, this anti-wrinkle peptide reduces the appearance of wrinkle volume and length even after short-term use. It helps to remove existing wrinkles and prevents the formation of new ones.


• A synthetic hexapeptide (Argireline) with antiwrinkle activity, First published:14 November 2002 

• Geometrical optimisation of a personalised microneedle eye patch for transdermal delivery of anti-wrinkle small peptide, Biofabrication, (2020). 

• Buforin-1 blocks neuronal SNARE-mediated membrane fusion by inhibiting SNARE complex assembly, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, (2019).

Vitamin C can help protect the skin from many problems such as sunburn, photoaging, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, sagging, dryness and uneven skin tone. Due to its antioxidant properties, vitamin C helps your skin's natural regeneration process and contributes to the repair of damaged skin cells.

Benefits of Vitamin C to Skin:

• Neutralizes and cleans free radicals and minimizes the visible effects of environmental stress on the skin.

• Increases the production of barrier lipids and supports the skin's moisture barrier.

• It helps to reduce fine lines and wrinkles, provides a tighter and more elastic skin.

• By reducing the production of melanin, it brightens the skin and minimizes the appearance of dark spots.

• Increases skin cell regeneration and cleans dead and damaged skin.

• Increases collagen production.


• Role of Vitamin C in Skin Diseases. Frontiers in Physiology, 9.201 

• Topical Activity of Ascorbic Acid: From in vitro Optimization to in vivo Efficacy. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 17(4),pp.200-206.2004 

• Sodium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate 5% lotion for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 9(1), pp.22-27.2010.

Zinc PCA is the Zinc salt of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid. It provides acne control by reducing sebum secretion and also helps the skin retain moisture. Zinc metal salts, thanks to their structure, dry out the inflammation caused by acne, and also reduce the secretion of sebum and control the activity of the sebaceous glands. It has a simple molecular structure, it is produced naturally by our body and it is one of the "natural moisturizing factor" components that our skin produces to slow down water loss. How does Zinc PCA work? Zinc PCA helps fight viruses and bacteria. Zinc also has anti-inflammatory properties. This helps relieve the redness and irritation associated with moderate to severe acne. Zinc is also recommended for other inflammatory skin conditions, including:

Glycolic acid; It is one of the chemical exfoliants in the Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA) family. It helps to improve the overall appearance by improving the tone and texture of the skin. It provides a more vibrant, smooth and youthful-looking skin texture. Thanks to its small molecule structure, glycolic acid has the ability to easily penetrate the layers of the skin, and it is also an expert in removing dead cells from the skin and removing excess sebum.

Important benefits of glycolic acid:

• It helps to reduce hyperpigmentation and contributes to the balancing of skin tone.

• It supports the removal of fine lines and deep wrinkles by supporting the production of collagen.

• It helps the skin to look more lively and smooth by contributing to the removal of dead cells from the skin.

• It helps to purify the pores from oil, dirt and dead cells, and is effective in reducing the appearance of pores. Since glycolic acid has an exfoliating effect on the skin, it can make the skin vulnerable to UV rays. For this reason, sunscreen must be used after the application and in the following days. Suitable for all skin types except sensitive skin.


• The Effect of Glycolic Acid on the Treatment of Acne in Asian Skin ,19 June 2013,Citations: 25 

• Glycolic Acid Treatment Increases Type I Collagen mRNA and Hyaluronic Acid Content of Human Skin, 20 December 2001, Citations: 21

Hyaluronic acid (HA) plays a versatile role in regulating various biological processes such as skin repair, wound healing, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammatory. Due to its extraordinary biomedical and tissue regeneration potential, HA is the indispensable active ingredient in dermocosmetic products. Enhanced skin hydration offered by hyaluronic acid is achieved through collagen and elastin stimulation and skin surface restoration. Hymagic-4D, which is a combination of four types of Hyaluronic Acid with different properties, establishes a three-dimensional network by targeting different layers of the skin to protect and restore moisture in the skin. In this way, the skin is completely moisturized and this directly increases the elasticity of the skin.

Hyaluronic Acid 3D effect technology;

1. Three-dimensional network structure; Hymagic-4D creates a three-dimensional network to retain moisture in the skin.

2. Accurately targeting different layers of skin; When Hymagic-4D is applied to the skin, it targets the different layers of the skin, such as the skin surface, cuticle, epidermis and dermis, thus providing an instant three-dimensional moisturizing effect, adding and retaining moisture from the outside.

4 Different Hyaluronic Acids together;

•Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer forms a protective dense film on the skin surface that reduces water loss, as well as provides 24-hour hydration and anti-pollution / anti-UV capabilities.

•Sodium Hyaluronate retains moisture on the skin surface by keeping water and nourishes the skin surface.

•Sodium Acetylated Hyaluronate adheres tightly to the skin surface layer and provides excellent hydration and repair of damaged skin.

• Hydrolyzed Sodium Hyaluronate quickly penetrates the epidermis and dermis, moisturizes the skin from the inside and restores the lost moisture.

3. Three-dimensional humidification; Results of dermatological tests show that after 1 hour of application, Hymagic-4D application increases skin hydration by 155.1% and skin TEWL, namely transepidermal water loss, decreases by 32.3%. Hymagic-4D can provide instant three-dimensional moisturizing efficacy to moisturize the skin continuously. It increases skin moisture from the inside and makes the skin smooth and elastic.


•International journal of biological macromolecules, 2018; 120(Pt B). 

Caffeine is a powerful antioxidant known for its anti-aging benefits. Caffeine, which has a vasoconstrictor effect, acts by constricting blood vessels, helping to reduce inflammation and swelling. It also tightens, brightens the skin, reduces wrinkles and visibly reduces cellulite on the body.

Caffeine benefits:

• Reduces Puffiness: Caffeine is a great topical agent for improving swelling and improving circulation in the skin, so it's considered a vital ingredient for under-eye puffiness. 

•Contains Antioxidants: By using products that contain antioxidants, such as those found in caffeine, you can limit the amount your body produces free radicals, which prevents the formation of fine lines and wrinkles.

•Helps Collagen Production: Caffeine helps the production of collagen and elastin through the amino acids it contains.

•Reduces Cellulite: Caffeine is the main ingredient in cellulite creams and is formulated with ingredients that increase blood flow to stimulate the removal of fatty acid from the fat layer.


•Skin pharmacology and physiology 2013; 26(1):8-14. 

•Does Caffeine Really Make a Difference in Skincare Products?, 2020.

Niacinamide is one of the most common and used ingredients in the cosmetic and dermocosmetic industries that everyone is wondering about. What makes this material special? Why are brands and users scrambling to learn more about it every day? What is niacinamide? Niacinamide, also called nicotinamide, is a form of active niacin, a vitamin B3 and essential nutrient. Vitamin B3 deficiency can lead to skin problems. Niacinamide helps prevent Vitamin B3 deficiency. Vitamin B3 also plays an important role in digestion and mental health and supports the work of more than 200 enzymes in the body.

Why Is Niacinamide Important?

The topical (skin use) form of niacinamide has a wide range of skin care benefits. These can be listed as follows. Skin benefits of niacinamide:

• Lipid barrier: Niacinamide helps your skin develop a ceramide (lipid) barrier, which allows the skin to retain moisture. This is beneficial for all skin types, especially individuals with eczema or mature skin.

• Minimizes redness and blemishes: Niacinamide helps relieve redness by reducing inflammation in eczema, acne and other inflammatory skin conditions.

• Minimizes the appearance of pores: It keeps the skin smooth and moist, which leads to a natural reduction in pore size over time.

• Regulates the oil rate of the skin: The benefits of keeping moisture are not only for those with dry skin types. Niacinamide also helps regulate the amount of oil produced by the sebaceous glands and prevents excess sebum production.

• Protects against sun damage: Niacinamide also helps regenerate healthy cells and protects them from damage caused by ultraviolet rays.

• Treats hyperpigmentation (skin discoloration): A study has found that niacinamide content can help brighten dark spots. Benefits were observed after four weeks. This is due to increased collagen production.

• Minimizes fine lines and wrinkles: Niacinamide helps reduce some signs of sun damage, including fine lines and wrinkles.

• Protects against stress-induced cell damage: Niacinamide helps regenerate skin cells, while protecting it from environmental factors such as sunlight, pollution and toxins.

Treats acne: After using niacinamide, you can see fewer lesions and improved skin texture over time. Niacinamide Controls the production of sebum, which causes acne-related blackheads, pimples and blemishes, and balances the oil content of the skin (naturally produced oil to protect and moisturize the skin) .

•Lightens the skin: Niacinamide reduces the color (pigmentation) of the skin by disrupting the action of one of the key enzymes necessary for the production of melanin, which is produced by the skin in response to harmful sunlight and causes skin darkening and pigmentation.


• Everything you need to know about using niacinamide on your skin, CBC Life, March 14, 2019. 

• Niacinamide, Breast Cancer website sources, Therapeutic Research Faculty, publishers of Natural Medicines, Prescriber's Letter, and Pharmacist's Lette. 

• Gehring W, Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin, J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004 Apr;3(2):88-93. 

• The effect of 2% niacinamide on facial sebum production, J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2006 Jun;8(2):96-101.

Panthenol is an active ingredient used in dermatology to maintain skin health, moisturize and soften the skin surface, and repair barriers.

Importance of Panthenol (B5) in Skin Care;

• Panthenol is easily absorbed by the skin and shows its effect thanks to its fast penetration feature.

• Since panthenol is absorbed into the skin, it also corrects the appearance of the skin by filling the wrinkles and cracks with water.

• Thanks to the water-retaining feature of Panthenol, it draws moisture to the skin and helps the skin to have a more beautiful and soft appearance.

How do we meet our need for Vitamin B5?

The best sources of vitamin B5 include fish, meat, whole grains, milk, eggs, avocados, mushrooms, peanuts, legumes. However, in order to benefit the skin, it must be eaten in large quantities. For this reason, the skin's need for vitamin B5 should be partially met with the cosmetic products you use.

What does Vitamin B5 do?

• It is a strong moisturizer. It used for intensive moisturizing of hair, nails and skin. It makes its moisturizing effect both by absorbing and holding water from the outside to the skin; acts like a sponge.

• It increases the elasticity of the skin. It has an anti-aging effect by stimulating collagen production. It supports the formation of a fuller and younger skin.

• It plays a role in the development of the protective barrier function of the skin by increasing the synthesis of lipids in the outermost layer of the skin.


• In Vivo Efficacy and Properties of Semisolid Formulations Containing Panthenol, 2019 Feb;18(1):346-354.

• Panthenol, National library of medicine. 

• Design, Optimization and Characterization of Coenzyme Q10- And D-panthenyl Triacetate-Loaded Liposom, 2017 July 7.

Azelaic acid (COOH-(CH2)7 -COOH) is a medium chain length saturated 9 carbon atom dicarboxylic acid that has recently been shown to have important biological activities and some useful practical therapeutic applications. It is a type of acid found naturally in grains such as barley, wheat and rye. It is an acid with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. It is a gentler exfoliator compared to other acids, so it is also suitable for sensitive skin. Azelaic acid, which helps to improve skin tone and texture, is especially preferred in the treatment of acne and rosacea. It reduces the presence of bacteria that cause acne and inflammation and treats skin redness, uneven skin tone problems. It also reduces the production of keratin, which can help limit skin cracks.

• It helps to reduce acne problems. Azelaic acid shows bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties against various aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms found in acne-prone skin. It is a preferred type of acid for cystic acne. With its anti-inflammatory effect, it helps the spots to be opened over time and become less visible. It accelerates the equalization of skin tone by increasing cell renewal.

•It treats the redness of the skin. Thanks to its content, it regulates the normal growth process of cells. It is effective in reversing the reddened image that occurs in diseases caused by vascular enlargement such as rosacea.

•It has a peeling effect. With regular use, it provides a smooth appearance by exfoliating the skin. It reduces the appearance of enlarged pores.

•It reduces the signs of aging. Since it contains reactive oxygen species, it equalizes skin spots and color tone, providing a younger and healthier looking skin appearance.


Fitton, A., Goa, KL Azelaik Asit. İlaçlar 41, (1991), 780-798 

It aims at deep cleansing, sebum control and exfoliation, cellular regeneration, prevention of acne and pore cleansing at the same time. It also reduces wrinkles by promoting collagen production and provides a smooth and bright appearance.

Ferulic acid is an antioxidant-rich active ingredient that fights aging, fine lines, wrinkles, discoloration and damaged skin cells. Ferulic acid is easily absorbed by the skin and is a successful active ingredient when it comes to fighting free radicals and preventing cell damage. Ferulic Acid continues to protect from the damage of ultraviolet rays and moisturize at a high level after skin care. With its antioxidant feature, it accelerates cell repair, lightens photo damages, congenital spots, sunspots, freckles and dark spots that are about to become permanent. It provides a dazzling flawless skin with its natural whitening effect. It helps to prevent the signs of aging and the formation of expression lines. Ferulic Acid plays a major role in tightening the skin, as it contains plenty of Vitamin C in its own structure. It is very effective in collagen formation and accelerates blood circulation.

Tasmannia lanceolata, commonly known as the Tasmanian Pepper or Mountain Pepper, is a shrub native to temperate rainforest and woodland areas in southeastern Australia. Tasmanian Pepper is a fruit of the Tasmanian lanceolata tree, which has a delicious pepper-like flavor and aroma with a combination of woody sweetness and herbal tones. It is considered a superfood for the skin as it is rich in antioxidants that revitalize and rejuvenate the skin and treat dry, itchy and inflamed skin. Herbal active is derived from Tasmanian pepper; It is a water-soluble (and alcohol-soluble) anti-inflammatory active ingredient. It has a soothing effect in cases of sensitivity such as irritation, burning, stinging and itching. It is effective in making the skin more comfortable by showing an immediate effect on skin redness.

Centella Asiatica, also known as Gotu Kola, is native to Indonesia, China, India and Southeast Asia. Perhaps the most important feature of this special plant, which is a rich source of amino acids, flavonoids, phytosterols and fatty acids, as a skin care product is that it helps heal wounds, acne and blemishes. Gotu kola accelerates blood circulation by increasing blood flow in the area in question in a skin struggling with such problems. In this way, the skin, whose oxygenation is increased, is both renewed and strengthened. 

In general, we can summarize the benefits as follows:

•The combination of amino acids, fatty acids, beta carotene and phytochemicals in its content accelerates the healing time in the treatment of skin blemishes, acne scars, burns and wounds.

•It strengthens the skin by increasing the antioxidants in the problem area of ​​the skin.

•It helps the skin maintain its elasticity by accelerating blood circulation.

•Thanks to its collagen fibers and its ability to form elastin, it delays skin aging, helps reduce wrinkles and cracks, and helps strengthen hair and nails.

•It contributes to the elimination of skin redness and dryness.

•It improves the epidermal barrier function of the skin.

•It helps to relieve skin irritations.

A microalgae that minimizes the appearance of aging after exposure to UV and blue light. It reduces skin damage caused by natural and artificial blue light sources and improves the overall skin appearance. It acts as an anti-aging and sunscreen ingredient. Provides protection against skin damage caused by UV and blue light. It stimulates collagen III production and reduces the number of sunburn cells and oxidative stress. It also improves the overall skin appearance and presents a beautiful skin appearance. It contains amino acids, vitamins (B3), algal saccharides and minerals (Zn). It instantly and powerfully reduces skin hyperpigmentation and irritation after exposure to blue light and restores an even skin tone. It is used in formulating day, sun, after sun and regenerative night care products.

In vitro: 

-Stimulates total collagen by up to 34% to reduce visible signs of sun-induced aging.

-Protects fibroblasts (up to 50%) from UV stress and restores fibroblasts functionality (up to 200%) after UV stress.

-It reduces the number of sunburned cells by 63% against UVA.

In vivo:

Proven to be highly effective against hyperpigmentation:

-Immediate reduction in skin pigment darkening (-30%)

- Faster rebalancing to normal pigmentation of the skin and restoring even skin tone

-Reducing skin redness caused by blue light

•Ex vivo:

- Reduces free radicals caused by blue light by up to 35%.

-Reduces carbonylated proteins from blue light by up to 61%.

-Increases collagen III production by 29%.

It has the effect of preventing the formation of dynamic wrinkles. It helps the skin restructure by stimulating the production of collagen. It helps moisturize the skin.

The most commonly used form in dermocosmetic products is the retinol form. In order to have an effect, it first converts to retinal and then to retinoic acid. The reason all retinoids are converted to retinoic acid is that only retinoic acid can bind to their respective receptors. It improves the appearance of wrinkles by increasing the amount of GAG and collagen.

Retinol, a derivative of vitamin A, is in the group of retinoids that increase collagen production in the skin. Because it stimulates the skin to produce new cells, it offers powerful anti-aging effects, from reducing the appearance of wrinkles to tightening the skin when added to the skincare routine. Retinol, which plays an important role in acne treatment and provides a solution to almost every skin problem; It helps tighten pores, brighten and even out skin tone, reduce the appearance of dark spots and control hyperpigmentation. 

Considerations for Use:

• Since vitamin A is quite unstable, it may lose its effectiveness as a result of contact with light and air. It should be stored in airtight, dark colored packaging.

• It should only be applied in the evening as it may cause photosensitivity.

• It should always be used with moisturizers as it may cause dryness and irritation on the skin.

• It should be started using a low percentage.

• It is contraindicated in pregnancy.

• It is expected to show an effect after an average of 8-12 weeks.

Since products containing exfoliating acids such as alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), beta hydroxy acid (BHA) and poly hydroxy acid (PHA) will increase the sensitivity of the skin, these acids should be interrupted while using retinol.


  • The role of topical retinoids in the treatment of photoaging. Drugs. 2005;65(8):1061-72. 
  • Retinoids in aging. Clin Dermatol. Mar-Apr 1996;14(2):207-15. 
  • Cosmeceuticals: the evidence behind the retinoids. Aesthet Surg J. 2010 Jan;30(1):74-7.
  • Bikowski JB. Mechanisms of the comedolytic and anti-inflammatory properties of topical retinoids. J Drugs Dermatol. 2005 Jan-Feb;4(1):41-7.

Acmella oleracea, scientific name Spilanthes oleracea, is a plant of the Asteraceae family (Compositae) native to South America and grows spontaneously in all humid places of the world, particularly Brazil, Peru and tropical Africa. It is common in Australia, India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka and is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. It act as a natural facelift for the face while improving the appearance of the skin. Fine yellow-red, almost flaky, flowers contain 1.25% Spilanthol. It is a plant-based alkaloid. It is preferred because of its firming and anti-wrinkle properties.

Common blueberry, which can be grown in acidic and organic matter rich microclimate areas around the world, is in the genus Vaccinium in the Ericaceae family. It is also known as "European Blueberry" in some sources. In some European countries, especially in the USA, blueberry cultivation is carried out in thousands of hectares. Its cultivation in our country was started in Rize in the 2000s. It has been used in the treatment of many ailments because it contains abundant phenolic compounds. Fruit and leaf extracts are used in skin care for their antioxidant and anti-aging effects.

It is a good source of anthocyanins. So what is anthocyanin?

Anthocyanins strengthen the skin's defenses against environmental stressors (such as damaging UV rays), which help reduce the onset of wrinkles, dark spots and other signs of aging.

Vaccinium myrtillus fruit extract has also been proven to offer calming properties. It is especially beneficial for problematic or sensitive skin. Another beneficial feature is that the antioxidant property of Vaccinium myrtillus fruit extract is not only for the skin, but also as a protective and stabilizing feature in certain mixtures in the formulation.


  • International Journal of Food Sciences, August 2014, pages 594-601
  • Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, March 2014, pages 27-35
  • Pharmacognosy Research, July-September 2011, pages 173-177
  • Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects 2nd edition, 2011, chapter four

Biofactors, January 2008, pages 249-266

  • G, Göktaş, Yaban mersini (Vaccinium myrtillus/Vaccinium corymbosum) fenolik bileşiklerinin LC-MS/MS ile belirlenmesi, (2013).

Octinoxate is also known as Octyl Methoxycinnamate. It is one of the most widely used, oil-soluble chemical solar filters. It is highly preferred because it has an elegant version in cosmetics. It absorbs UVB radiation between 280-320 nm and provides maximum protection at 310 nm. 

It does not protect against UVA rays, so it should be supplemented with other filters. It is also not very stable. It loses 10% of its SPF protection ability within 35 minutes when exposed to sunlight.

It is allowed to be used up to 10% in the EU and up to 7.5% in the USA. It is therefore classified as “Safe as it is used”.

In vitro studies have shown that it can produce hormonal (estrogen-like) effects. There is no need to panic at this point because the studies were not conducted on real people and under real-life conditions. It is therefore unnecessary to avoid Octinoxate altogether. However, if you're pregnant or a child younger than 2, you can choose a sunscreen with physical (zinc oxide/titanium dioxide) or next-generation filters to be on the super safe side.


  • Couteau, C., et al. "Study of the efficacy of 18 sun filters authorized in the European Union tested in vitro." Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 62.6 (2007): 449-452.
  •  Couteau, Céline, et al. "Study of the photostability of 18 sunscreens in creams by measuring the SPF in vitro." Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 44.1 (2007): 270-273.
  • Chatelain, Eric, and Bernard Gabard. "Photostabilization of Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) and Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate by Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (Tinosorb S), a New UV Broadband Filter." Photochemistry and Photobiology 74.3 (2001): 401-406.
  • Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq, et al. "Systemic absorption of the sunscreens benzophenone-3, octyl-methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor after whole-body topical application and reproductive hormone levels in humans." Journal of Investigative Dermatology 123.1 (2004): 57-61.
  • Schlumpf, Margret, et al. "In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity of UV screens." Environmental health perspectives 109.3 (2001): 239.

Uvinul A Plus is also known as DHHB. It is a new generation chemical sunscreen agent designed for high UVA protection and high photostability. Available up to 10% worldwide except USA and Canada.

It has the same effect as avobenzone. However, DHHB's stability in the sun is much better than Avobenzone because Avobenzone's ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation will decrease rapidly in the sun. Therefore, you need to add another UV absorber as a light stabilizer to the formula to reduce the loss of Avobenzone. In DHHB, there is no need for this.


It is an oil-soluble chemical sunscreen agent that reaches a peak absorption of 304 nm, protecting the skin in UVB and somewhat in the UVA II range. Its protection alone is not strong enough, but it is quite photostable (loses 10% of its SPF protection in 95 minutes) and is often used to stabilize other photo-labile UV filters such as Avobenzone.

It is also often used to increase the waterproofness of products.

The safety profile of Octocrylene is generally quite good, although one review study in Contact dermatitis reports an "increased number of patients with photocontact allergy to octocrylene." Mainly adults with ketoprofen sensitivity and children with sensitive skin are more affected, so if you have a young child, be careful when using sunscreens containing octocrylene.


  • Couteau, C., et al. "Study of the efficacy of 18 sun filters authorized in European Union tested in vitro." Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 62.6 (2007): 449-452.
  • Couteau, Céline, et al. "Study of the photostability of 18 sunscreens in creams by measuring the SPF in vitro." Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 44.1 (2007): 270-273.
  • Scalia, Santo, and Matteo Mezzena. "Incorporation in lipid microparticles of the UVA filter, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane combined with the UVB filter, octocrylene: effect on photostability." AAPS PharmSciTech 10.2 (2009): 384-390.
  • de Groot, Anton C., and David W. Roberts. "Contact and photocontact allergy to octocrylene: a review." Contact dermatitis 70.4 (2014): 193-204.

It is an inorganic/physical sunscreen filter. A 2016 study shows that inorganic sun filters work like chemical filters mostly by absorption and just a little bit of reflection (they reflect light in the visible spectrum, but mostly absorb it in the UV spectrum).

Apart from its sunscreen feature, it is also used as a thickener, opacifier and pigment donor in cosmetics.

It provides nice broad spectrum coverage and is fairly stable. Its protection is very good at 290 - 350 nm (UVB and UVA II range), less good in the 350-400 nm (UVA I) range. For this reason, it would be better to prefer filters with high UVA I protection in sunscreens containing titanium dioxide. Normal molecular size Titanium Dioxide also has a great safety profile, is non-irritating and does not contain any health concerns.

The disadvantage of Titanium Dioxide is that it is not cosmetically elegant in its version. Sunscreens containing Titanium Dioxide are often difficult to spread on the skin and leave an uncomfortable whitish tint. The best solution that the cosmetics industry has found so far against this situation is to use nanoparticles. Small nano-sized particles both improve dispersibility and greatly reduce the whitish hue, but unfortunately it was thought that they could bring new health problems.

According to research, the main concern with nanoparticles is that they are too small and absorb more into the skin than we would like (ideally, sunscreen should stay on the skin's surface). Once absorbed, they can form unwanted complexes with proteins and promote the formation of nasty free radicals, but in a 2009 article on the safety of nanoparticles, "in-vivo and in-vitro studies to date have not demonstrated percutaneous penetration of nano-sized particles in titanium dioxide and zinc oxide sunscreens. In other words, in the research done so far, we see that sunscreens with nanoparticles stay where they should be on the surface of the skin.

Also, even when Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used, the molecular size of the material used to coat the nanoparticles is large enough to prevent them from going beyond the uppermost layers of the skin. This means you get the sun protection that titanium dioxide provides, without the risk of harming your skin or body. The coating process improves application, increases sun protection and prevents titanium dioxide from interacting with other ingredients in the presence of sunlight, thereby increasing its stability.


  • Newman, Marissa D., Mira Stotland, and Jeffrey I. Ellis. "The safety of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide–and zinc oxide–based sunscreens." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 61.4 (2009): 685-692.
  • Monteiro-Riviere, N. A., et al. "Safety evaluation of sunscreen formulations containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in UVB sunburned skin: an in vitro and in vivo study." Toxicological Sciences (2011): kfr148.
  •  Cole, Curtis, Thomas Shyr, and Hao Ou‐Yang. "Metal oxide sunscreens protect skin by absorption, not by reflection or scattering." Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine 32.1 (2016): 5-10.
  • Smijs, Threes G., and Stanislav Pavel. "Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness." Nanotechnol Sci Appl 4.1 (2011): 95-112.

It is an inorganic/physical sunscreen filter. It provides almost the same level of protection against UVB, UVA II and UVA I and is considered the broadest spectrum sun filter available today. It is allowed to be used in sunscreens in concentrations up to 25%.

It is also quite stable and non-irritating. So much so that Zinc Oxide is also considered a skin protectant and anti-irritant. It is also often used to treat skin irritations such as diaper rash.

As for the disadvantages, the Zinc Oxide version is also not cosmetically elegant. According to a 2000 research paper by Pinnell, although slightly less white than TiO2, it leaves an annoying whitish color on the skin. This is where nanoparticles come into play. A study published in Investigative Dermatology found that zinc oxide nanoparticles do not penetrate or damage the skin at the cellular level, even with repeated applications.

Additional studies have found that nanosized zinc oxide is non-irritating, similar to non-nano zinc oxide. You can find more information about nanoparticles under the heading Titanium dioxide. Zinc oxide is sometimes used in makeup to add opacity to products such as foundation, especially powder-based make-up.


  • Pinnell, Sheldon R., et al. "Microfine zinc oxide is a superior sunscreen ingredient to microfine titanium dioxide." Dermatologic surgery 26.4 (2000): 309-314.
  • Newman, Marissa D., Mira Stotland, and Jeffrey I. Ellis. "The safety of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide–and zinc oxide–based sunscreens." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 61.4 (2009): 685-692.
  • Monteiro-Riviere, N. A., et al. "Safety evaluation of sunscreen formulations containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in UVB sunburned skin: an in vitro and in vivo study." Toxicological Sciences (2011): kfr148.
  • Cole, Curtis, Thomas Shyr, and Hao Ou‐Yang. "Metal oxide sunscreens protect skin by absorption, not by reflection or scattering." Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine 32.1 (2016): 5-10.
  • Smijs, Threes G., and Stanislav Pavel. "Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness." Nanotechnol Sci Appl 4.1 (2011): 95-112.
  • Journal of Investigative Dermatology, February 2019, pages 277-278
  • Nanomaterials, March 2017, pages 27-31
  • Particle and Fibre Toxicology, August 2016, page 44
  • International Journal of Cosmetic Science, June 2014, pages 273-283
  • Indian Journal of Dermatology, September-October 2012, pages 335-342
  • Archives of Toxicology, July 2012, pages 1063-1075
  • Photodermatology, Photoimmunology, & Photomedicine, April 2011, pages 58-67
  • American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, December 2010, pages 413-421

It is known as shea butter. It is obtained from the shea tree and is used as an emollient in cosmetics.

Shea butter doesn't just have a rich texture; also quercetin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin; It is a rich source of antioxidants, including vitamins A, E, F, and skin-regenerating fatty acids (stearic and linoleic). It's one of the ingredients we want to see in products designed to heal dry skin.


  • Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, June 2011, pages 45-55
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, October 2003, pages 6,268-6,273
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, February 2009, page S41

Vitamin C has three proven amazing effects: antioxidant, collagen booster and skin brightener. But the problem is that because it is very unstable, it oxidizes to brown and becomes ineffective in a short time (after a few months).

Therefore, manufacturers have started to produce and test vitamin C in derivative form as an alternative to pure vitamin C. Here we will examine Ethyl Ascorbic Acid, known as 3-O-Ethyl Ascorbate.

It is an "etherified derivative of ascorbic acid" consisting of vitamin C and an ethyl group attached to the third carbon position. This makes vitamin C very stable and soluble in both water and oil.

Because conversion to pure vitamin C is a slower process, 3-O ethyl ascorbic acid is considered a more tolerable form of vitamin C. The pH range required for optimum stability is higher than that required by ascorbic acid for ideal stability, and EAC becomes an interesting alternative if your skin has not been able to tolerate higher concentrations (10% or more) of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) products. 

The usage levels of EAC in skin care are between 0.5-5%. Depending on the desired benefit, levels above 5% can also be used. Amounts of up to 30% have been shown to be non-irritating in human skin samples.

However, for a Vitamin C derivative to work, it is not only necessary to be stable, they must also be absorbed into the skin and converted there into pure Vitamin C. Regarding conversion, we can only talk about a claim where manufacturers say that EAC is metabolized in the skin to pure ascorbic acid, but according to some tests showing that it can penetrate the skin, it has been shown to be better in this regard than another vitamin C derivative, Ascorbyl Glucoside. It can fade hyperpigmentation and offers anti-aging benefits equal to pure vitamin C.

It has been suggested that EAC has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and it is claimed that it can increase the skin's collagen production. EAC's strong point is skin brightening. Besides manufacturer claims, there is also clinical in-vivo data showing that 2% EAC can improve skin tone and whiten skin.


  • Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Volume 11 (4) – Dec 1, 2012, Stability, transdermal penetration, and cutaneous effects of ascorbic acid and its derivatives
  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine, September 2021, pages 151–169
  • Life, May 2021, pages 1–13
  • International Journal of Pharmaceutics, December 2019, pages 1–9
  • Journal of Cosmetic Science, July-August 2018, pages 233–243
  • AAPS PharmSciTech, June 2016, pages 767–777

It is a super common, safe, effective and inexpensive molecule that has been used for over 50 years.

It is a natural moisturizer that is also found in our skin. It is not just a simple moisturizer, it is much more: it keeps the skin lipids between our skin cells in a healthy (liquid crystal) state, protects against irritation, helps to restore the barrier. In 2005 a study showed that glycerin levels correlate with skin hydration levels, so more glycerin means better hydrated skin.

  • It ensures that the sticky substance between skin cells is neither too diluted nor too concentrated (this is called osmoregulation).
  • It helps maintain the healthy state of cell membranes and intracellular lipids. (keeps lipids in a beautiful liquid crystal state that is optimal for barrier function).
  • It can normalize skin flaking in very dry skin.
  • Provides protection against skin irritation. (like washing your face too much and/or too aggressively)

Although it provides even greater benefits at higher concentrations of up to 20-40%, it is also effective as low as 3%. About 10% is a good usability-effectiveness point. It is possible to convert this amount into a formula that is relatively light, non-sticky and not too heavy (yes, glycerin is sticky and the high % is really hard to convert into a cosmetically elegant formula) but 10% also shows all the wonderful therapeutic effects.

100% pure glycerin isn't good for the skin either. Too much glycerin (and humectants in general) can draw water from the lower layers of the skin. This poses a problem because once the water enters the top layer some of it will evaporate. This is called trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). If there is too much TEWL, the skin becomes dry.

This was also confirmed by a study: a skin treated with 99.7% glycerin for 5 days showed that after treatment the SC (outermost layer of the skin) was not visibly different from the untreated control. The same study examined skin treated with 25% glycerin lotion, where SC has a visibly different, enlarged – i.e. more moist – appearance.

In conclusion: glycerin is much more than a simple moisturizer. It's an underappreciated superstar who deserves more attention.


  • Leslie Baumann, MD, Cosmetic Dermatology, 2nd edition, Glycerin- pages 275
  • The Journal of investigative dermatology., 2005 Aug;125(2):288-93., Is endogenous glycerol a determinant of stratum corneum hydration in humans?
  • Dry Skin and Moisturizers: Chemistry and Function, Marie Loden, Howard I. Maibach, chapter 20: Glycerol — Just a Moisturizer? Biological and Biophysical Effects